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软考信息安全工程师培训笔记五(1.5信息安全专业英语)

1.5信息安全专业英语

一.大纲要求

1.5 信息安全专业英语
* 阅读信息安全有关英文资料
* 掌握本领域的基本英语词汇

二.思维导图

暂无

三.备考知识要点

1、cryptography:密码;plaintext明文;ciphertext密文;concealment隐藏;cryptology密码学;
 2、symmetric-key对称密钥;
Symmetric-key cryptography refers to encryption methods in which both the sender and receiver share the same key(or,less commonly,in which their keys are different,but related in an easily computable way). 
    对称密钥加密是指加密方法,在该方法中,发送者和接收者共享相同的密钥
3、asymmetric key非对称密钥;Digita1 signatures 数字签名
    RSA and DSA are two of the most popular digital signature schemes
4、elliptic curve cryptography椭圆曲线密码
5、Cryptanalysis密码分析;quantum computer量子计算机;
6、Antivirus software杀毒软件
    Network-attached storage (NAS,网络附加存储): is file-level computer data storage connected to a computer network providing data access to heterogeneous network clients.
7、Penetration Testing Tools渗透测试工具

四.历年真题分布

2016年下半年上午真题71-75

(1)is the science of hiding information. Whereas the goal of cryptography is to make data unreadable by a third party. the goal of steganography is to hide the data from a third party. In this article, I will discuss what steganography is, what purposes it serves, and will provide an example using available software.
There are a large number of steganographic (2)that most of us are familiar with (especially if you watch a lot of spy movies), ranging from invisible ink and microdots to secreting a hidden message in the second letter of each word of a large body of text and spread spectrumradio communication. With computers and networks, there are many other ways of hiding informations, such as:Covert channels (c,g, Loki and some distributed denial-of-service toolsuse the Internet Control (3)Protocol, or ICMP, as the communicationchannel between the “bad guy”and a compromicyed system)
Hidden text within Web pages Hiding files in “plain sight”(c,g. what better place to “hide”a file than with an important sounding name in the c:\winnt system32 directory)
Null ciphers(c,g, using the first letter of each word to form a hidden message in an otherwise innocuous text)steganography today, however, is significantly more (4)than the example about suggest, allowing a user to hide large amounts of information within image and audio. These forms of steganography of tenare used in conjunction with cryptography so the information is double
protected; first it is encrypted and then hidden so that an advertisement first. find the information ( an often difficult task in and of itself) and the decrypted it.
The simplest approach to hiding data within an image file is called(5)signature insertion. In this method, we can take the binary representation of the hidden data and the bit of each byte within the covert image. If we are using 24-bit color the amount and will be minimum and indiscriminate to the human eye.
(1)A、Cryptography B、Geography C、Stenography D、Steganography
(2)A、methods B、software C、tools D、services
(3)A、Member B、Management C、Message D、Mail
(4)A、powerful B、sophistication C、advanced D、easy
(5)A、least B、most C、much D、less

正确答案:A、A、C、A、A

试题解析:

密码学是一门隐藏信息的科学。而密码学的目标是让第三方无法读取数据。隐写术的目标是从第三方隐藏数据。在这篇文章中,我将讨论隐写术是什么,它的作用是什么,并将提供一个使用现有软件的例子。

有许多我们大多数人都熟悉的隐写术方法(特别是如果你看了很多间谍电影),从看不见的墨水和微粒到在第二个隐藏信息的隐藏。每个字的字母都是一个大正文,传播频谱和无线电通信。在计算机和网络中,隐藏信息的方法有很多,例如:隐藏通道(C、G、Loki和一些分布式拒绝服务工具,如Internet控制消息协议,或ICMP,作为“坏人”和复杂系统之间的通信通道)隐藏网页中的文本隐藏在“清晰可见”的文件中。“(c,g.在c:\winnt system32目录中有一个听起来很重要的名字,“隐藏”一个文件的最佳位置)空密码(c,g,使用每个单词的第一个字母在其他无害的文本中形成一个隐藏的信息),然而,今天的隐写术比建议的例子要强大得多,允许用户隐藏lar图像和音频中的GE信息量。泰纳的这些形式的隐写术与密码学结合使用,因此信息是双重保护的;首先它是加密的,然后是隐藏的,以便广告首先。找到信息(通常是很困难的任务)并对其进行解密。

在图像文件中隐藏数据的最简单方法称为最小签名插入。在这种方法中,我们可以取隐藏数据的二进制表示和隐藏图像中每个字节的位。如果我们使用的是24位颜色,那么对人眼来说,它的量是最小的,也是不加区别的。

 

2017年上半年上午真题71-75

There are different ways to perform IP based DoS Attacks. The most common IP based DoS attack is that an attacker sends an extensive amount of connection establishment (1)(e.g. TCP SYN requests) to establish hanging connections with the controller or a DPS. Such a way, the attacker can consume the network resources which should be available for legitimate users. In other (2), the attacker inserts a large amount of (3)packets to the data plane by spoofing all or part of the header fields with random values. These incoming packets will trigger table-misses and send lots of packet-in flow request messages to the network controller to saturate the controller resources. In some cases, an (4)who gains access to DPS can artificially generate lots of random packet-in flow request messages to saturate the control channel and the controller resources. Moreover, the lack of diversity among DPSs fuels fuels the fast propagation of such attacks.Legacy mobile backhaul devices are inherently protected against the propagation of attacks due to complex and vendor specific equipment. Moreover, legacy backhaul devices do not require frequent communication with core control devices in a manner similar to DPSs communicating with the centralized controller. These features minimize both the impact and propagation of DoS attacks. Moreover, the legacy backhaul devices are controlled as a joint effort of multiple network element. For instance, a single Long Term Evilution(LTE)eNodeB  is connected up to 32 MMEs. Therefore, DoS/DDoS attack on a single core element will not terminate the entire operation of a backhaul device(5)the net work.
(1)A.message  B、information  C、requests  D、data
(2)A.methods  B、cases       C、hands    D、sections
(3)A.bad      B、real        C、fake      D、new
(4)A.user     B、administrator  C、editor   D、attacker
(5)A.or       B、of          C、in        D、to
正确答案:C、B、C、D、B

试题解析:有不同的方法来执行基于IP的DoS攻击。最常见的基于IP的DoS攻击是攻击者发送大量连接建立请求(例如,TCP SYN请求)以建立与控制器或DPS的挂起连接。这样,攻击者就可以使用合法用户应该可以使用的网络资源。在其他情况下,攻击者通过用随机值欺骗全部或部分头字段,向数据平面插入大量假的数据包。这些传入的数据包将触发表未命中,并向网络控制器发送大量数据包流请求消息,以使控制器资源饱和。在某些情况下,获得DPS访问权的攻击者可以在流请求消息中人为地生成大量随机包,以使控制通道和控制器资源饱和。此外,DPSS之间缺乏多样性,推动了此类攻击的快速传播。传统的移动回程设备固有地受到保护,以防止由于复杂和供应商特定的设备而导致的攻击传播。此外,传统回程设备不需要以类似于DPSS与中央控制器通信的方式与核心控制设备频繁通信。这些特性最小化了DoS攻击的影响和传播。此外,传统的回程设备是由多个网络元素共同控制的。例如,单个长期逐出(LTE)enodeb__连接高达32 mmes。因此,对单个核心元素的DoS/DDOS攻击不会终止网络回程设备整个操作。

 

2018年上半年上午真题71-75

Trustis typically interpreted as a subjective belief in the reliability, honesty and  security  of an entity on which we depend (71)our welfare .In online environments we depend on a wide spectrun of things , ranging from computer hardware,software and data to people and organizations. A security solution always assumescertain entities function according to specific policies.To trust is precisely to make this sort of assumptions , hence , a trusted entity is the same as anentity that is assumed to function according to policy . A consequence of this is that a trust component of a systemmust work correctly in order  for the security of that system to hold, meaning that when a trusted(72)fails , then the sytems and applications that depend on  it can(73)be considered secure . An often citedarticulation of this principle is:" a trusted system orcomponent is one that can break your security policy” ( which happens when thetrust system fails ). The same applies to a trusted party such as a serviceprovider ( SP for short )that is , it must operate according to the agreed orassumed  policy in order to ensure theexpected level of securty and quality of services . A paradoxical   conclusion to be drawn from this analysis isthat security assurance may decrease when increasing the number of trustedcomponents and parties that a service infrastructure depends on . This isbecause the security of an infrastructure consisting of many Trusted componentstypically follows the principle of the weakest link , that is ,in manysituations the the overall security can only be as strong as the least   reliable or least secure of all the trustedcomponents. We cannot avoid using trusted security  components,but the fewer the better. This isimportant to understand when designing the identity management architectures,that is, fewer the trusted parties inan identity management     model ,stronger the security that can be achieved by it .
Thetransfer of the social constructs of identity and trust into digital  and computational concepts helps in designingand implementing large scale online markets and communities,and also plays animportant role in the converging mobile and Internet environments .   Identity management (denoted Idm hereafter )is about recognizing and verifying the correctness of identitied in online environment .Trust management becomes a component of (74) whenever different parties rely on each other for identityprovision and authentication . IdM and Trust management therefore depend oneach other in complex ways because the correctness of the identity itself mustbe trusted for the quality and reliability of the corresponding entity tobe  trusted.IdM is also an essentialconcept when defining  authorisationpolicies in personalised services.
Establishing trust always has a cost , so thathaving  complex trust requirementtypically leads to high overhead in establishing the required trust . To reducecosts there will be  incentives forstakeholders to “cut corners”regarding trust requirements ,which could lead toinadequate security . The challenge is to design IdM systems with relativelysimple trust requirements. Cryptographic mechanisms are often a core componentof IdM solutions,for example,for entity and data authentication. Withcryptography,it is often possible to propagate trust from where it initiallyexists to where it is needed .The establishment of initial(75)usually takes place in the physicalworld,and the subsequent propagation of trust happens online,often in anautomated manner.
71、 A .with  B. on  C. of   D. for
72、A. entity   B. person C. component   D. thing
73、A. no longer   B. never   C. always  D. often
74、A. SP   B. IdM  C. Internet     D. entity
75、A. trust  B. cost C.  IdM    D. solution
正确答案:B、A、B、B、A
试题解析:
信任通常被理解为一种主观的信仰,即我们依赖我们的福利的实体的可靠性、诚实和安全性。在网络环境中,信任依赖于广泛的事物,从计算机硬件、软件和数据到人和组织。安全解决方案总是根据特定的策略假定实体的功能。信任是精确的。要做出这种假设,因此,受信任的实体与根据策略假定的功能相同。这样做的结果是,系统的信任组件必须正确工作,才能保证系统的安全性,也就是说,当信任失败时,依赖于它的系统和应用程序就永远不会被认为是安全的。这一原则的一个经常被引用的表述是:“可信系统或组件是可以破坏您的安全策略的组件”(当信任系统失败时会发生这种情况)。这同样适用于受信任方,如服务提供商(简称SP),即,为了确保预期的安全水平和服务质量,它必须按照商定或假设的政策进行操作。从该分析中得出的一个矛盾结论是,当增加服务基础设施所依赖的受信任组件和参与方的数量时,安全保障可能会减少。这是因为由许多受信任组件组成的基础设施的安全性通常遵循最弱链接的原则,也就是说,在许多情况下,总体安全性只能与所有受信任组件中最不可靠或最不安全的部分一样强。我们不能避免使用可信的安全组件,但越少越好。在设计身份管理架构时,理解这一点很重要,也就是说,在身份管理模型中,受信任方越少,所能实现的安全性就越强。将身份和信任的社会结构转换为数字概念有助于设计和实现LAR。通用电气对网络市场和社区的规模进行了评估,并在融合的移动和互联网环境中发挥了重要作用。身份管理(以下简称IDM)是识别和验证在线环境中标识的正确性。当不同的各方相互依赖时,信任管理就成为IDM的一个组成部分。用于标识提供和身份验证。因此,IDM和信托管理以复杂的方式相互依赖,因为必须信任身份本身的正确性,以确保相应实体的质量和可靠性值得信任。在定义个性化服务中的授权政策时,IDM也是一个重要的概念。建立信托总是有成本的,因此复杂的信任要求通常会导致建立所需信任的高开销。为了减少成本,将有鼓励收购者在信托要求方面“抄近路”,这可能导致等同的安全。挑战在于设计具有相对简单信任要求的IDM系统。加密机制通常是IDM解决方案的核心组件,例如用于实体和数据身份验证。在密码学中,信任通常可以从最初存在的地方传播到需要的地方。最初信任的建立通常发生在物理世界中,随后的信任传播通常以自动方式在线进行。

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该日志由 moondream 于2018年05月18日发表在 信息安全基础 分类下, 你可以发表评论,并在保留原文地址及作者的情况下引用到你的网站或博客。
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